The real answer to this is that sometimes HMRC will agree a time to pay arrangement with interest charged on the debt. They need to be satisfied that the individual or business cannot raise the funds from other sources and that there is a realistic chance that they will be able to meet any payments due under any time to pay agreement.
This can often take significant amounts of time as HMRC are reluctant to agree time to pay if any other option is available and will want very detailed information about an individuals asset position and income and outgoings.
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